The Big Three of bicycle drivetrain have been all been busy at work with updates. Will the future include faster, more precise rear shifting? Or perhaps a new method of mounting up cassettes with a 10-tooth cog? Or is the entire drivetrain as we know it heading internal? Let’s dig in.


First up is SRAM, who filed a patent to further refine the shift ramps in their cassette cogs. By adding a recess on the outboard side of a tooth, shifting is improved while wear is diminished.

In addition, there is an intentional number of teeth to which the new profiling is applied:

“A particularly advantageous further development of the shift gate is obtained if elements for forming this shift gate are arranged on four directly successive teeth. These shift gate elements cooperate with immediately following the chain links, namely with an inner link member, an outer link member, another inner link member and a second outer link member, so that the chain disengaged from the larger start pinion without riding on the tooth tips.

The tip circle radius of the tooth tips on the smaller target pinion is then greater than the root circle of the tooth space on the larger start pinion with a tooth number difference of one tooth. This means that in the case of a switchover, the process of disengagement has not yet ended, and the engagement has already begun. Both processes take place simultaneously for at least a part of the time span for switching over.”


Next up is Campagnolo, who filed a patent covering an all-new cassette and cassette body for rear wheels. At first glance, this might appear to be a standard cassette with alloy cog carrier, mounted up to a standard freehub (a.k.a. cassette body). However, if you do some careful counting…

…you might notice that it has a 10-tooth small cog. Indeed, it appears that Campagnolo is finally jumping in to cogs smaller than 11… which may also suggest single chainring (1x) options in the future.

The cassette mounts up to the freehub via several attachment points, with the patent suggesting that it would be secured by some type of threaded fasteners rather than a lockring. Below, we’ve pulled out a few pertinent portions of text:

“With this cassette, the attachment to the body does not take place through a grooved profile formed on the first portion of the body, but rather through the attachment areas, arranged in a radially outer position with respect to the centering opening. Therefore, the diameter of the centering opening is not constrained by the need to transmit the pedaling torque and therefore it can be less than what is normally provided; consequently, the first sprocket is not constrained to a minimum diameter and therefore its number of teeth can also be very low, for example 10, 9 or even less.

Furthermore, since the attachment of the cassette to the body takes place in a position far from the axis of the cassette, therefore with a favorably large arm, the stresses transmitted between cassette and body are less, for the same torque transmitted. This advantage can make it possible to reduce the dimensions of the parts that transmit the stresses, or also to select lighter materials even if they are weaker.”

In addition, Campagnolo suggests that the cassette itself should ideally be machined from a single piece for optimal performance:

“Preferably, the sprockets of the cassette are formed from a single piece, suitably machined. For the purposes of the invention, as stated, it is necessary for the sprockets to be fixedly connected to one another, i.e. they for a monolithic assembly; this feature can also be obtained by joining together the sprockets, through whatever suitable means, like for example screws, couplings, gluing, welding; however, if the cassette is obtained from a single suitably shaped piece, it is possible to obtain the maximum rigidity and strength for the same weight, or lower weight for the same strength.”


The biggest recent drivetrain update comes from Shimano, who filed a massive patent for an internal gearbox. It applies to road, mountain, or other styles of bikes, mounting to the bottom bracket area of the bike (similar to the Pinion system, for example).

However, the similarities to the Pinion system end there. Rather than using a heavy set of thick gears, the inside of the box has two cassettes and a secondary chain. At least one of these cassettes can move laterally during gear shifts, keeping a perfectly straight chainline for the internal chain.

The result is a total of thirteen gear choices, which should provide ample range in the ballpark of current 1 x 12 systems, or the Rohloff 14-speed internal gear hub.

The patent also includes extensive information on a proprietary lubricant that the gearbox requires for proper performance. One of the benefits of internal bottom bracket gearboxes or internal gear hubs is effectively zero maintenance – and we’d expect no different from the new Shimano system.

The big question mark is drivetrain efficiency. It’s well-known that current internal gear systems have a noticeable amount of drag compared to external drivetrains. While we can’t say for sure, the unique design of the Shimano system suggests that it may be more efficient – because it’s not unlike an external drivetrain in design – just moved indoors.

We’ll continue to follow all three of these stories for further developments.


  1. adamrice on

    The Shimano system is interesting—seems as if they’ve put the essentials of a derailleur system inside a box. But it also seems needlessly bulky, perhaps to ease service or manufacturing. I can imagine how it might be smaller.

    • OriginalMV on

      It is just as plausible that Shimano has no plans to ever develop this idea. A lot of their patents are strategic measures to prevent potential competitors from bringing product to market in the future. I doubt that Shimano is the only one who does this, but they are well-known for it. That’s why it’s amusing to see them struggle to justify their Microspline cassette design when SRAM’s XD/XDR is clearly a structurally superior design.

      Campagnolo’s cassette design looks like it’s a spider integrated into the freehub, and then the cassette cogs attach to the spider by means of several fixing bolts…..? That would be one way to side step SRAM’s design, but depending on how exactly the cassette attaches to the spider I can imagine a few situations in which the installation or removal of the cassette would be super annoying to a mechanic.

      But it could be just another one of those things that mechanics will adapt to, like bleed kits for road bikes and updating the firmware for derailleurs.

      • Kevin VanDeventer on

        Tell that to my mechanic trying to remove my cassette from my XD driver.

        Said something about removing it in pieces…

        • Kbogey on

          Agreed, the xD design is not good. Loads of cassettes that are stuck to the drivers. Seems like Sram didn’t even test this design outdoors.

        • i on

          It isn’t. Just the opposite, to anyone that knows anything. That statement is just the cyclist knee-jerk: “it’s new so it must be worse”

          • Chromag Bikes on

            as much as I miss having my cassette carriage “edges” dug into my driver body despite proper installation i’m happy to have had flawless XD driver performance for multiple years now. there is nothing to miss about HG drivers.

      • Langhorne on

        “XD/XDR is clearly a structurally superior design”
        It’s only superior if you enjoy awkwardly designed, overly expensive cassettes. It has zero functional benefits, and is needlessly limiting on cassette design. Even Sram’s own billet style cassettes were originally designed for a simple splined freehub body, and would still work better if designed for MicroSpline.

    • Luiggi on

      The bulkyness is completely intentional. What this article here at BR fails to highlight is the full compatibility of the gearbox’s form factor with the one of Shimano’s own STEPS motors. So they are essentially creating a de facto mounting standard, and throwing their whole market share on top of the most evident contender, Pinion.

      • JBikes on

        For MTB, it’s actually great. Lower unsparing weight, less damage prone stuff hanging back there, more centralized down low.

        And if they can fit a motor, they could be in a position that allows one frame mounting standard for mtb’s and e-mtb’s which would be a huge benefit for manufacturers, which may go toward Shimano for OEM fits. Big leap, as people would be locked in, but if it works good, it’s got good value for both consumer and oem.

  2. Daniel M on

    “It’s well-known that current internal gear systems have a noticeable amount of drag compared to external drivetrains.”

    That is not true across the board. The mechanical efficiency of the Rohloff is comparable to that of a derailer setup.

  3. Samuele Ballerini on

    I have been working on this system since the end of 2010 when I was involved by its Inventor to optimize functionality, engineering and chassis integration. The double sprocket pack system was invented by Daniele Cappellini who patented it in 2005. We are still working on it, with additional and visionary developments Some key words: constant efficiency, smart simplicity.

  4. Jared on

    Anyone else interested in the mechanism at the end of the Shimano patent? Removing Shimano’s big flaw with 3 speed hubs, the external box/pin setup, by having it integrate into the axle inboard of the frame? Just me?

  5. voodoobike on

    Many patents overlap in a novel design. That is why so many companies spend stupid amounts of money in litigation on EXISTING products. (Apple and Samsung for instance) The USPTO grants conflicting patents all the time and then let the courts to suss it out: a wasteful process. Regardless, don’t expect any of these to be showing up at the bike shop, like ever. For these stories to suggest they may be something coming is just dumb. It’s all best for interest at best. The engineering is another matter that’s for sure.


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